Goldthorpe means "small settlement" and it was an agricultural area through until post medieval times with mining introduced in the 17th century and corn mills in the18th.

Prehistoric and Romano-British activity in the Goldthorpe area is indicated by an enclosure that is visible as a cropmark on aerial photographs of the Doncaster Road area, while early medieval activity is indicated by place-name evidence. Recorded as ‘Godetorp’ in the 1086 Domesday survey, Goldthorpe derives its name from the Old English personal name ‘Golda’ and the Old Norse ‘torp’, meaning a small settlement (Smith 1961).

Following the Norman Conquest, Goldthorpe was granted to Roger de Busli, the lord of Tickhill. The area remained largely in agricultural use throughout the medieval and early post-medieval periods, and the area’s commons were enclosed between 1761 and 1767. Two corn mills were worked at Goldthorpe in the 18th century.

Coal mining took place in the Goldthorpe area from the 17th century, with the opening of a colliery in 1678 (Smith 2002). This mine was developed further as Marsden’s Goldthorpe Colliery in 1770. The site closed in 1783 but was re-opened as Goldthorpe Colliery in 1909. The mine closed in 1994.